I'm one of the Lucky Few (thousand?) that get to work with Erlang
professionally. Lots of people I meet are interested in the language--or Elixir, increasingly, though I happen to think LFE should be the new hotness--but have only used the language for small hobby projects or just read some books. "What do you use Erlang for?" I get asked.
Of Syntax and Semantics
Let's address something first: Erlang's syntax is unusual. It's prolog inspired (In fact, Erlang was initially implemented in Prolog. If you ask Joe Armstrong nicely he'll give you some early Erlang/Prolog source.) and that shows. Function arity matters and semi-colons abound. There is no assignment to variables in Erlang, only binding and matching, so what from a C-family language would look to be assignment isn't. The lack of destructive binding makes imperative Erlang into a mess of
Var2 statements as variables are 'mutated'. Conditionals are all total, so if statements are just plain strange. Records are limited in terms of introspection by the fact that they don't really exist at runtime (let that sink in). I could probably go on, but, as one becomes unaware of a close-friend's strong accent, I hardly notice these things anymore. (Except for the limits of records.) Concerns about syntax all get ironed out in the learning process and the real show here, the semantics of Erlang, have been very carefully crafted:
- Pattern matching makes destructuring code/data simple to understand, concise and maintainable.
- Pattern matching in function heads makes for clear and simple conditional computation; if it's describable in an ordered way, you can build functions to pull it all apart.
- Lack of traditional shared memory means never having to reason about access patterns or locking. One 'shares' by passing messages between processes.
- Combined with the above, lack of in-process concurrency means a process never has to be written to worry about being interrupted or interfering with itself.
- Lack of mutable data denies the ability to cheat and message mutable references around. Further, all data remains invariant, making reasoning about your program simpler (if you find reasoning in a functional style simple, of course).
- If process A sends a message to process B and B is alive, the message is guaranteed to arrive.
- Messages pool in a per-process inbox in the order in which they were received. Messages may be selectively removed from the inbox by pattern-matching.
- Message passing is blind to local/remote process distinctions. That is, intra-VM messaging is accomplished in the same way--from the point of view of the programmer--as inter-VM messaging.
- Processes can 'link', receiving special messages when pairs crash.
- Processes have a unique ID--called a PID--but may optionally be given a per-VM or per-cluster unique name.
The implications for implementation of Erlang VMs are sort of subtle to suss out, but they allow:
- Soft-realtime, low-latency performance characteristics: For instance, shared state means garbage-collection is a per-process endeavor, removing the sort of whole application pauses you see in other GC languages.
- High-concurrency: With processes being all single-threaded, Erlang can schedule them as it sees fit.
- High-parallelism: If you hand the Erlang scheduler some OS threads, it can schedule processes across these threads. The lack of shared-memory between processes means the scheduler does not have to concern itself with resolving lock conflicts among processes.
- Distributivity: By teaching the VM to transparently send remote messages the Erlang programmer can zip messages back and forth across the network with no cognitive overhead.
- Fault-tolerance: With process linking it is possible to handle crash messages and respawn the newly dead partner process.
- Zero-downtime deployments: By swapping the process pointed to by a certain name, you can change the process that will receive messages without interrupting service (messages in-flight to the old process are guaranteed to arrive, mind).
What Erlang is Good For
- Latency sensitive work: If you need relatively strong bounds on response times Erlang can give you that.
- Throughput sensitive work: Erlang won't necessarily beat other languages in time to process a single unit of work, but it'll outperform when you need to do thousands of units of work more or less at the same time. (Put another way, concurrent/parallel aggregate process performance has long been an optimization target, but not per-process performance.)
- Network services: Erlang'sbit syntax makes dealing with binary and text protocols equally natural, plus you can be sure your service will stay online and responsive in the face of failure.
- Mission critical middleware: Erlang's zero-downtime deployments, fault-tolerance and optimization focuses make for exceptionally reliable services (think messaging, queues, distributed locking, job batching etc etc).
- Purely functional algorithmic work: Erlang doesn't get as much attention here as Haskell or Lisp, but pattern matching plus higher-order functions is just wonderful. Write a lexer sometime in Erlang over binaries. You'll be surprised how painless it is, even for complex for tokenizations.
- Shared-nothing parallel computation: Message passing combined with parallel execution of processes make this very simple. (You don't, though, have much say in how things get scheduled.)
- Big-ish Embedded environments: While Erlang is suitable to be deployed on big, beefy machines, it started out in small telephony switches and retains low-memory usage characteristics. Compared to, say, the JVM you'll be surprised what mischief you can get up to in a handful of megabytes. (Robert Virding has a LEGO robot running Erlang. Video).
What Erlang isn't Good For
- Short-run computing: The Erlang VM is pretty quick to startup, but it's not that fast. If you start scripting in Erlang you'll notice the lag.
- CPU intensive work: The Erlang VM is not optimized for this work and wall-clock performance can be pokey.
- Share-memory parallel computation: There's no shared memory available.
- End-user desktop deployments: A single-binary executable is, without an impressive hack, not possible.
- Meta-programming: Erlang's got macros, but they're simple text-replacement macros. If your bag of tricks heavily relies on writing code to write code, Erlang's going to be tough.
- Glue-together style web application: While producing a REST API in Erlang is pretty easy (see either webmachine or cowboy) there is no equivalent to, say, Rails. There are a few rails-alikes, but they are not backed by the same depth of libraries.
In general, really, Erlang is missing the depth of libraries other languages enjoy. I could have thrown something to do with statistics up in the list owing to the lack of something like, say, numpy. The library choices you will have in Erlang will be limited--especially if you work outside of the common niche--which may or may not be a problem, depending on what you're producing. Be prepared to read some source code. There is no central index of Erlang libraries, no Maven, but Github is a common stomping ground.